Repetition of Action A Karma Philosophy


By Mr. Raj Kishore Jain


Every action has its equal and opposite reaction at that very moment. This is the third principle of motion depicted by Newton while some other people say, 'Every action follows its equal and opposite reaction. But we shall deal here in another type of the action and effect. That we call repetition of action or habit. The word Karma cycle is used in this meaning in the Jain view.

Every function of the soul is its action or modification. 'Action' world is often used in the meaning of doing something quite different from pervious deeds (different in the sense of changing degrees of manifestation of a quality etc). But this is a partial statement true for the mundane state only.

Action is of two types : 1. Pure action 2. Impure action. Pure action is the action performed by the soul following own full natural power. Impure action. Pure action is the action performed by the soul following own full natural power. Impure action is the action performed by the soul not following its own full nature but a foggy part of it which, in turn, is called follower of pudgala.

Pure action is always full manifestation of its nature. No changes in degrees except the special rythmatic sat-guna-hani - vriddhi (six types of decrease-increase) of the agurulaghutva guna. But the impure action is a foggy partial manifestation and that is the following/identifying with others (in the language of lower levels of Vyavahara).

Karma has two meaning :

1. Present action

2. Repetition facility mechanism

Present action is soul action or Jiva-Karma and repetition facility mechanism is Pudgala-Karma.

The action or Karma as described in three stage :

1. Bhava Karma (Jiva Karma). is the present impure action of the soul.
2. Dravya Karma is the repetition facility mechanism.
3. Nokarma is the pudgala device to facilitate the Karma to repeat in feeling and re-action.
 (re-action here means 'same action again'). No Karma is mainly mind, body, speech and senses.
 These all are the expressions of Karma through which the soul experiences the Karma.

Whenever the action in the nokarma is not identified with (by the soul), the action is not repeatable and no new karma are bonded.

The Karma bondage is of three types :

1. Bhava bandha - The bondage of bhava karma with the soul. Though the bhava karma is the modification of the soul, it is un-natural manifestation, therefore counted as a separate entity bonded with the soul.

2. Dravya bandha - The bondage of the pudgala karma with the old pudgala karma i.e. Karman body.

3. Ubhaya bandha (Mutual Bondage) - Bondage of the bhava bandha and dravya bandh together.

When the knower (soul) indulges (in his bhava only) in the origination and destruction of modes of the knowable, he is bonding with karma. This indulgence results because of forgetting self-majesty. The soul's action initiates a parallel action in karman vargana (independently, of course) and they covert into 7 or 8 types of the original kinds of karma. The eight types of karma are :

Four Ghatia - 1. Knowledge obscuring, 2. Darshana obscuring, 3. Passion feeding or hypnotising and 4. 'Hurdles' setting.

Four Aghatia - 1. Duration of life determining, 2. Body constituting, 3. Status determining, and 4. Bodily pain and pleasure causing. 

Ghatia karma are nimitta in the non-manifestation of soul's powers while aghatia karma are nimitta in body construction and allowing agreeable--pleasure (suitable for constructing the body further or removal of pain and disagreeable - pains (suitable for further destruction or obstacle in construction proper working of the body). Constructive material and discard the non-constructive but they may be deceived sometimes. Every creation is preceded by some type of destruction.

There is only one pleasure in the world at the bodily level i.e. the constantly dynamic body phases, dynamic in the direction of construction. The sexual urge is also to create/construct the same models of the body and feels happy to see the created models. The constrction, creation, grouping of pudgala is the only thing in which the soul is interested inspite of unable to do anything in them.

The imagination of creation is the only karma (action) for new bondage - to set a chain of repetition. The imagination of destruction is also for the sake of creation as creation is preceded by destruction. The soul, neglecting his own highness, finds so called/supposed pleasure in outer creations. He thinks that he had been the creator and feel happy-enjoy his own creation while in fact it has no relation with soul.

The imagination of 'creation' and 'enjoying' the creation' leads to the eight types of karma bondages. The duration of life determining karma is bonded on certain times only while the rest 7 karmas are constantly coming into new bondage. The next bondage of life determining karma can occur only after exactly two-thirds of the present life-span has passed. If it is not seeded (started bonding) at that time then however, the next seeding (starting of bonding) time comes after passing two-thirds of the rest life now. This series goes on with a total of eight bonding times in man's life. The rules for the celestials are different. Their eight seeding times happen only in the span of last six months of their life.

No need to say that the pudgala karma are not in any way cause of grief to the soul. The soul has created grief by neglecting his own majesty of infinite Omni-potent attributes himself. The only reason for bonding with pudgala in to consider them as causes of pain or pleasure. In the distinct undivided view the only bondage is neglecting his own majesty or indulging in foggy/partial imaginations regarding self or others.

The people of all philosophies believe in general, "So shall you reap, as you sow." This statement is only in reference of meeting the bodily or outer materials. This is a very gross statement far from the total reality. This statement is in reference of pudgale's grouping modes only. At the level of soul, the sowing and reaping are not at different time-points. Whenever you are neglecting your own majesty you are experiencing misery at the same moment. No time gap is there and no future reaping or fruits remain. You are not enjoying your Omniscience and Omnipresence (ever-presence) and Omnipotence. Is it fruit if your negligence ? What about other fruits of pudgala ? They are fruits only when you continues to neglect your majesty. Whenever you start to respect your own majesty in the full highness, you are experience of the highest bliss then and there and the so called fruit giving karma are not called fruit giving then, they are called as fruitless and are shaded. Then you are non-experience of karma. 

As long as you think that you shall have to experience the bitter fruits and you are greedy of experiencing the good fruits (pleasure); so long you are called experience of them. As soon as you realise that you were neither creator nor experience of these karma you are immediately free. The freedom is your Omnipresent virtue, you accept it and that is your freedom, because you are nourishing the 'fear of freedom'.

The eight types of karma are further divided into total 148 Prakriti. Out of these 148 Prakriti divisions of meritorious and demeritorious are made. In fact they all are demeritorious. Deeply speaking they are neither meritorious nor demeritorious for the soul. They are called meritourious or dementorious by the ignorant from the bodily view; demerit only from the Vyavahara religion view (mixing dividing view) and neither merit nor demerit from Nischaya (distinct) view.

The karma exist in either of the ten states calls as the 'karma' :

1. Bandh (Bondage) - The new karma's bond with the old karma. 

2. Utkarsana (Increasing power/Advance) - Increase of karma into 'allied' karma with suitable nimitta of soul thoughts.

3. Samkramana (Interchange) - Interchange of karma into 'allied' karma with suitable nimitta of soul thoughts.

4. Apkarsana (Decreasing power/retreat) - Decrease in the power of karma with suitable minitta of soul thoughts.

5. Udirna (Aroused) - The karma are made to be operative i.e. to produce fruits before their own time of reaping by Apkarsana in their time duration and power.

6. Sattva (present in the non-operative state/Inactive) - The state of karma between the bondage and operative stage.

7. Udaya (Arising/operative state/active service) - The karma give their fruits by reaping of their own (on own time) without Apkarsna, utkarsana etc.

8. Upasama (subsidential/setting down) - The setting down or not arising in operative state (or the Mohaniya - hypnotising karma).

9. Nidhatti - The karma not capable of getting into the operative state or interchange.

10. Nihkachita - The karma not capable of getting into the operative state, interchange, advance or repeat.

Of the above spiritual meanings of Udaya and Udirna are important for knowing the basis of new bondage and liberation -

Udaya                        unconsciously                    careless

Udirna                        consciously                       attentive/cautious/ careful

Of karma philosophy shows the limitless powers of the soul whether he uses them for introversion or extroversion. He is the whole master of his fate. Fate is nothing but his ideas himself. When any one comes to know this fact, he immediately gets the right path to salvation.



Source : Article From 'Sixth World Jain Conference' ( 1995) Souvenir


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