The Celestial Beings

By Prof. S. A. Jain

The word ‘celestial being’ has been used several times in the previous chapters in such sutras as, ‘Clairvoyance originating from birth is possessed by the celestial and infernal beings’. But who are celestial beings or how many kinds of celestial beings are there? The author explains these things in this chapter.

1. The celestial beings are of four orders (classes).
The celestial beings (devas) far those who roam freely and derive pleasure in several parts of the terrestrial world, the mountains and the oceans surrounding them, on the rise of karmas leading to the celestial state. They are endowed with magnificence, splendor and extraordinary powers.

It is proper to use the singular in the sutra instead of the plural. For instance, ‘The celestial being is fourfold.’ A collective noun denoting a class implies the plural. But the use of the plural is intended to indicate the subdivisions. For instance, there are different ranks among celestial beings such as kings, their equals, etc. There are other differences also among them based on duration of life and so on. On the common basis of the rise of karmas leading to the celestial state, the celestial beings are grouped in classes in spite of individual differences. Thus there are four orders of celestial beings. Who are they? They are the Residential (Bhavanavasi), the peripatetic (Vyantara), the Stellar (Jyotiska) and the Heavenly (Vaimanika) beings.

The next sutra is intended to determine the coloration of their thoughts.

2. The coloration of thought of the first three classes is up to yellow.
The term ‘among the first’ is intended to exclude the ‘middle’ and the ‘end’. ‘Three’ is intended to exclude ‘two’ or ‘one’. It does not exclude all the four because of the term ‘among the first’. Six kinds of coloration have been mentioned. Among these the first four are taken by the term ‘up to the end of yellow’. ‘Up to he end of yellow coloration’ means those, who are characterized by the first four thought-complexions ending with yellow. This is the purport. Among the first three classes of celestial beings, namely the Residential, the Peripatetic and the Stellar celestial beings, the black, indigo, grey and yellow types of coloration prevail.

3. They are of ten, eight, five and twelve classes up to the Heavenly beings (kalpavasis).
Ten etc. are taken along with the four orders respectively. The Residential devas are of ten classes. The Peripatetic celestial beings are of eight classes. The Stellar devas are of five classes. It would imply that all the Heavenly beings are included in the twelve classes. In order to exclude devas in Navagraiveyaka and so on, ‘Up to the end of kalpas’ is added in the sutra. Now what are called kalpas? Those in which the ten grades prevail are called kalpas. Though these grades are prevalent among the Residential celestial beings, by usage kalpa is used only among the Vaimanikas. Those born in kalpas are kalppapannah, i.e. up the Heavenly beings.

The next sutra is intended to convey detailed particulars.

4. There are ten grades in each of these classes of celestial beings, the Lord (Indra), his Equal, the Minister, the courtiers, the bodyguards, the police, the army, the citizens, the servants and the menials.
Indras are Lords who are powerful, being endowed with extraordinary occult powers not possessed by the others. Those who are equal to Indras in respect of duration of life, energy, attendants, enjoyment, etc., but not with regard to authority and splendor, are called equals (Samanikah). They are great ones like fathers, teachers or preceptors. Trayastrimsah are of the status of ministers or priests. They are thirty-three, and hence they are called Trayastrimsah. Parisadah are the friends and companions in court, that is courtiers. Atmaraksah are like bodyguards. Lokapalah are like the police, those who protect the people and property. Anika is the army consisting of seven divisions such as infantry and so on. Prakirnakah are like the citizens, such as townsfolk and peasants. Abhiyogyah are like servants engaged in serving others in several ways. Kilbisikah are of the lowest rank, those who possess demerit.

The general rule would imply that there are these ten grades of beings in each class of the four orders. The exceptions are given below.

5. The Peripatetic and the Stellar devas are without the ministers and the police.
Among the Peripatetic and the Stellar devas, there are only eight grades leaving out the ministers and the police.

6. In the first two orders there are two lords.
‘In the first two orders’ means among the Residential and the Peripatetic devas. How can the second the considered first? It is mentioned figuratively on account of its proximity. It ‘two lords’ repetition implying continuance or succession is implied. Those having two, two lords are referred to as ‘two lords’, as in saptaparna (a seven-leaved tree) and astapada1 (an eight footed animal). It is as follows. First with regard to the Residential devas, camara and Vairocana are the two lords of Asurakumaras, Dharana and Bhutananda or Nagakumaras, Harisimha and Harikanta of Vidyutkumaras Venudeva and Venudhari of Suparnakumaras, Agnisikha and Agnimanava of Agnikumaras, Vailamba and Prabhanjana of Vatakumaras, Sughosa and Mahaghosa of Stanitakumaras, Jalakanta and Jalaprabha of udadhikumuras, Purna and Visista of Dvipakumaras, and Amitagati and Amitavahana of Dikkumaras. Among the Peripatetic devas also Kinnara and Kimpurusa are the lords of Kinnaras, Satpurusa and Mahapurusa of Kimpurusas, Atikaya and Mahakaya of Mahoragas, Gitarati and Gitayasa of Gandharvas, Purnabhadra and Maanibhadra of yaksas, Bhima and Mahabhima of Raksasas, Pratirupa and Apratirupa of Bhutas, and Kala and Mahakala of Pisacas.

7. Up to Aisana Kalpa they enjoy copulation.
Pravicara is copulation (sexual union). Kayena means bodily. and denotes limit. The words are given separately and not in a compound for the sake of clarity. The Residential devas and others up to those in Aisanakalpa enjoy sexual pleasure like human beings, as they are actuated by karmas causing affliction and uneasiness.

8. The others derive pleasure by touch, sight, sound and thought.
Sesa means the others. Who are the others? Kalpavasi devas. Sparsa, rupa, sabda and mana form a dvandva compound of sparsarupasabdamanamsi. Tesu pravicaro yesam the sparsarupasabdamanahpravicarah (which is a bahuvrihi compound). The compounds in the phrase are of two kinds dvandva and bahuvrihi. How are these to be taken? Without contradicting the authority of the holy scriptures. Why is ‘pravicara’ mentioned again? It is in order to covey what is intended. What is it that does not contradict the scriptures? In Sanatkumara and Mahendra kalpas the devas as well as devis1 derive the highest pleasure by mere touch of the body. In Brahma, Brahmottara, Lantava and Kapistha Kalpas, the devas experience the highest pleasure by looking at the charming and lovely forms and the beautiful and attractive dress of devis. In Sukra, Mahasukra Satara and Sahasrara Kalpas, the devas derive the highest enjoyment by listening to the sweet songs, the gentle laughter, the lovely words and the pleasant sounds of the ornaments of their devis. In Anata, Pranata, Arana and Acyuta Kalpas the devas get the utmost pleasure the moment they think of their devis.

9. The rest are without sexual desire.
Para includes all the remaining celestial beings. Apravicara is intended to indicate the highest happiness. Copulation (pravicara) is merely a palliative for pain. In the absence of pain or uneasiness they enjoy the highest happiness incessantly.

10. The Residential devas comprise Asura, Naga, Vidyut, Suparna, Agni, Vata, Stanita, Udadhi, Dvipa and Dikkumaras.
Those who live in mansions are called Residential devas. This is the common name of the first order of celestial beings. Asura etc. are special names acquired by special name karmas. All celestial beings are of the same appearance (age) and nature as at birth. Still these beings appear as youth by their dress, ornaments, weapons, conveyance, animals they ride on, sport etc. Hence they are designated kumaras by common currency. It is added to every one, as Asurakumaras and so on. Where are their mansions? The mansion of Asurakumaras are in the Pankabahula part of the first infernal region. The dwelling places of the other nine classes of kumaras are in the upper and lower strata of Kharaprthivibhaga, leaving out 1,000 yojanas in each of these.

The common and special names of the second order or devas are mentioned in the next sutra.

11. The Peripatetic devas comprise Kinnara, Kimpurusa, Mahoraga, Gandharva, Yaksa, Raksasa, Bhuta and Pisaca classes.
The common, meaning designation of these eight classes of devas is Peripatetic (Vyantara), that is those having habitations in various places. Their eight divisions must be understood to arise from special name karmas. Where are their dwelling places? The dwelling places of seven classes of the Peripatetic devas are in the upper hard part beyond the innumerable islands and oceans. The Raksasas reside in the Pankabahula region.

The general and specific names of the third order are mentioned next.

12. The Stellar (luminary) devas comprise the sun, the moon, the planets, the constellations and the scattered stars.
As these are endowed with light, these five are called by the significant general name of luminaries. The sun etc. are particular names derived from name karmas. The mention of the sun and the moon is intended to indicate their importance. On what account re these important? These are important on account of their brilliance etc. Where are their abodes? The stars which are the lowest among the luminous bodies rotate at a height of seven hundred and ninety yojanas from level earth (sea level). The suns rotate ten yojanas higher. The moons rotate eighty yojanas higher still. Four yojanas higher up are the constellations. Four yojanas above these are the planets called Budhas (Mercury). Three yojanas above these are Sukras (Venus). Three yojanas above these are Angarakas (Mars). Three yojanas still higher up are Sanaiscaras (Saturn). This space spread over by these luminaries (Stellar devas) is one hundred and ten yojanas thick and is transversely (horizontally) of the extent of the innumerable islands and oceans up to the humid atmosphere. This has been mentioned in the scriptures.

"Over this level earth, at a height of seven hundred and ninety yojanas, are the stars. Ten yojanas higher up is the sun. Eighty yojanas above it is the moon. Again four yojanas higher up are the constellations, and four yojanas above these is Mercury. Further above, at intervals of three yojanas, are the planets, Venus, Jupiter, Mars and Saturn."

13. In the human region they are characterized by incessant motion around Meru.
Merupradaksina means motion round Meru. This phrase is intended to indicate the correct direction of the motion from left to right and dispel any view of the opposite direction. Nityagataya is intended to convey uninterrupted and continuous motion. ‘In the human world’ specifies that these are of constant motion within the extent of the two continents and a half and the two oceans, and not outside this limit.

Now, there is no cause for the motion of the heavenly cars of Stellar devas. Hence there can be no motion. No. The reason advanced is fallacious, as it is incongruous. The heavenly cars are in motion, being impelled by the class of devas (Abhiyogyas) who take pleasure in motion. If it be asked why they should enjoy constant motion, the reply is the fruition of karmas is strange. The fruition of their karmas is by motion. This is the reason why they derive pleasure in continual motion. Though the Stellar devas revolve round Meru, they revolve at a distance of 1,121 yojanas from Meru.

Conventional time is related to the motion of the luminary bodies. This is intended in the next sutra.

14. The divisions of time are caused by these.
The word tad is intended to indicate the Luminary devas in motion. Time cannot be measured either by mere motion or by the mere luminaries (without motion), for time will then be non-perceptible and unchangeable. Time is of two kinds, real and conventional. Conventional time consists of samaya (instant), avali, etc. The divisions of conventional time are determined by the Stellar devas in motion. And it is the means of ascertaining what has not been ascertained, namely real time. Real time is different and it is explained later on.

The next sutra is intended to state that the luminary bodies elsewhere are fixed.

15. They are stationary outside.
‘Outside’ is mentioned. Outside what? Outside the human regions. How is it conveyed? The case changes according to the meaning (Nrloke becomes nrlokat). Now, does not incessant motion in the human regions imply that they are stationary elsewhere? Hence this sutra is unnecessary. It is not so. What is the reason? It is not established that the luminary bodies exist and that they are stationary beyond the human region. In order to establish both these things, it is mentioned that they re stationary outside. This sutra is intended to preclude motion in the opposite direction and occasional motion.

The general name of the fourth order is mentioned next.

16. The Heavenly Beings (Vaimanikah).
The word Vaimanikah is intended to indicate a new section or topic. It is for conveying the idea that what is mentioned hereafter relates to the heavenly beings. Those which make the beings residing in them feel as possessing merit are called Vimanas. And those who live in Vimanas are Vaimanikas. The Vimanas are of three kinds, namely Indraka, Sreni and Puspaprakirnaka. Among them Indraka Vimanas are in the middle like the Lord (Indra). Srenibaddha Vimanas are those which are situated in the four directions like the rows of space-points. Those which are scattered like flowers in the intermediate points of the compass, are called Puspaprakirnaka.

17. Those born in the kalpas1 and beyond the kalpas.
Vaimanikas are of two kinds, those born in the sixteen Heavens or Kalpas and those born beyond these.

18. One above the other.
Why is this mentioned? It is in order to preclude transverse position. These are not transverse like the stellar bodies. Nor are these in an uneven manner like the habitations of the Peripatetic devas. It is described ‘one above the other’. What are these? These are kalpas.

19. In Saudharma, Aisana, Sanatkumara, Mahendra, Brahma, Brahmottara, Lantava, Kapistha, Sukra, Mahasukra, Satara, Sahasrara, in Anata, Pranata, Arana, Acyuta, in Navagriveyakas, in Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparajita and in Sarvarthasiddhi also.
How are Saudharma and the rest called kalpas? These are called kalpas by the addition of the suffix ‘an’ with four meanings or naturally. How are these the names of the lords? Naturally or by association. How is it? It is as follows. Sudharma is the name of the council chamber. That which has this chamber in it is called Saudharma Kalpa. Here the suffix ‘an’ in the sense of ‘it is in this’ is added. The lord who is associated with this kalpa is also called Saudharma. Isana is the natural name of the lord. That which is the habitation of Isana is Aisana. The suffix ‘an’ in the sense of ‘his habitation’ is used here. By association with it the lord also is called Aisana. Sanatkumara is the natural name of the lord. ‘An’ is used in the sense of ‘his habitation’. Sanatkumara kalpa. By association with it the lord also is called Sanatkumara. Mahendra is the natural name of the lord. The kalpa which is his habitation is Mahendra. By association with it the lord also is called Mahendra. Similarly it must be understood with regard to the rest. The arrangement must be understood in accordance with the scriptures. Therefore, the kalpas must be taken in pairs along with ‘one above the other.’ The first pair consists of Saudharma and Aisana Kalpas. Higher up are Sanatkumara and Mahendra, higher still Brahma and Brahmottara, and still higher Lantava and Kapistha. Higher up are Sukra and Mahasukra, higher still Satara, and Sahasrara, higher still Arana and Acyuta. At the top and at the bottom, each kalpa must be understood to have one lord. In the middle there is one lord for every two kalpas. This is the purport. There are four lords for the four kalpas of Saudharma, Aisana, Sanatkumara and Mahendra. There is one lord named Brahma for the two kalpas of Brahma and Brahmottara. Lantava is the lord of Lantava and Kapistha Kalpas. Sukra is the lord of Sukra and Mahasukra Kalpas. Satara is the lord of Satara and Sahasrara Kalpas. There are four lords for the four kalpas of Anata, Pranata, Arana and Acyuta. Thus there are twelve lords for the devas residing in the kalpas.

Mount Meru of Jambudvipa is embedded in the earth to a depth of 1,000 yojanas and is 99,000 yojanas high. Below it is the lower world. That which extends transversely within this range (namely the height of Mount Meru) is the transverse world. Above it is the upper world. The crest of Meru is of the height of forty yojanas. And the celestial car called Rjuvimana, the Indraka of Saudharma Kalpa, is only one hair’s breadth from the crest of Mount Meru. Other details must be ascertained from Lokanuyoga. Why is the word nava mentioned separately as navasu graiveyakesu? It is intended to indicate that there re other nine Vimanas called Anudisa Vimanas. By this the Anudisas must be understood to have been included.

The next sutra describes the characteristic differences of Vaimanikas from one another.

20. There is increase with regard to the lifetime, power, happiness, brilliance, purity in thought-coloration, capacity of the senses and range of clairvoyance.
Owing to the fruition of life-karma acquired by oneself, the soul’s association with the body in a particular birth is called lifetime. Capacity to confer benefit or inflict pain on others is superhuman power. Enjoyment of sensuous pleasures is happiness. The splendor of the body, the dress and the ornaments constitute brilliance. The thought-complexions have been mentioned. Lesyavisuddhi is the purity of the thought-complexions. Indriyavadhivisaya means the capacity of the sense and the range of clairvoyance. The suffix ‘tasi’ denotes that they are superior in these respects. The Vaimanikas higher and higher up are superior to those lower and lower down with regard to lifetime and so on.

Increase with regard to lifetime etc. May extend to movement etc. The next sutra is intended to preclude such an unwarrantable interpretation.

21. (But) there is decrease with regard to motion, stature, attachment and pride.
Motion is the cause of movement from one place to another. The body is the transformable body. Attachment is fondness for worldly things owing to the fruition of greed. Pride is haughtiness or self-conceit arising from the passion of pride. These grow less and less in the case of Vaimanikas higher and higher up. The fondness for pastime in other places becomes less. Hence higher and higher up there is less movement is the case of the celestial beings. The stature of Saudharma and Aisana devas is seven cubits, that of Sanatkumara and Mahendra six, that of Brahma, Brahmottara, Lantava and Kapistha five, that of Sukra, Mahasukra, Satara and Sahasrara Arana and Acyuta three, that of the lower Graiveyakas two and a half, that of the middle Graiveyakas two, that of the upper Graiveyakas and Anudisavimanas one and a half and that of the rest (Anuttaravimanas) one cubit. Higher and higher up the attachment relating to habitation, dress, retinue, and possessions is less and less. Similarly, higher and higher up pride also is less and less, as the passions grow less and less.

The rule concerning the thought-coloration of the first three orders has been mentioned earlier. Now the rule concerning that of the fourth order is given below.

22. In two, three and the rest (they are of) yellow, rose (pink) and white thought-complexions.
Yellow and pink and white are yellow, pink and white. Those who have yellow, pink and white complexions are called yellow, pink and white complexions. How are the last sounds of pita, padma and sukla made short in the sutra? This takes place according to the rule of auttarapadikam1. According to this rule, madhyama becomes shortened to madhyama in "drutayam taparakarane madhyamavilambitayorupasamkhyanam." otherwise pita and padma and sukla are colored objects. Those who have thought-complexions like these are pitapadmasuklalesyah.

Now what complexion is for whom? Saudharma and Aisana devas are colored by yellow thought-complexion. Sanatkumara and Mahendra devas are colored by yellow and pink thought-complexions. Those in Brahma, Brahmottara, Lantava and Kapistha Kalpas are actuated by pink thought-complexion. The devas in Sukra, Mahasukra, Satara and Sahasrara Kalpas are actuated by pink and white thought-complexions, and those from Anata onwards by white thought-complexion. Even here the devas in Anudisa and Anuttara Vimanas are actuated by pure white thought-complexion. Now, the mixing up of two complexions is not mentioned in the sutra. Why, then, are these taken together? It is because of association according to worldly usage. For instance when we say, ‘Those with umbrellas march’, it refers also to some without umbrellas among them. Similarly, one of the two mixed thought-complexions is mentioned here also. How is this interpretation indicated in the sutra? It is taken as follows. In the first two pairs of kalpas the yellow thought-complexion occurs. With regard to kalpas the yellow thought-complexion occurs. With regard to Sanatkumara and Mahendra Kalpas the pink thought-complexion is not expressly mentioned but implied. In the three pairs of kalpas commencing with Brahmaloka the pink thought-complexion prevails. With regard to Sukra and Mahasukra the white thought-complexion is not explicitly stated. In the other kalpas from Satara onwards the white thought-complexion prevails, as the pink thought-complexions is not expressly mentioned. Thus there is no fault in the interpretation given.

23. Prior to Graiveyakas are the kalpas.
It is not known where from the kalpas commence. Hence Saudharma etc. are taken over (from sutra 19). By this it means that Saudharma and the rest up to Graiveyakas are the kalpas. It also follows that the others are beyond the kalpas.

24. Brahmaloka is the abode of Laukantikas.
Alaya is that in which one dwells, that is abode. Those who have Brahmaloka as their abode are Laukantikas. If so, it would include all the devas residing there. No. The word is taken in its etymological sense. Brahmaloka is Loka. Lokanta is its end or border. Those who are born there are called Laukantikas and not all. Their abodes are situated in the borders of Brahmaloka. Otherwise, that which is diffused with birth, old age and death is loka, that is samsara. Lokanta means at the end of it. Those who are at the end of samsara (transmigration) are called Laukantikas. All of them have come to the end of transmigration1. Coming down from there, they take on birth and attain beatitude.

They have been mentioned in general. Their divisions are mentioned next.

25. They are Sarasvata, Aditya, Vahni, Aruna, Gardatoya, Tusita, Avyabadha and Arista, (Groups).
Where do these dwell? These eight classes of devas reside respectively in the eight directions of the east, the north etc. The abode of Sarasvata group is in the north-eastern direction, that of Adityas in the east, that of Vahni in the south-east, that of Aruna in the south, that of Gardatoya in the south-west, that of Tusita in the west, that of Avyabadha in the north-west and that of Arista in the north. The particle ‘ca’ is intended to include two groups of devas between each pair of those enumerated. It is as follows. Between Sarasvatas and Adityas are Agnyabhas and Suryabhas. Between Adityas and Vahnis are Chandrabhas and Satyabhas. Between Vahnis and Arunas are Sreyaskaras and Ksemankaras. Between Arunas and Gardatoyas are Vrsabhestas and Kamacaras. Between Gardatoyas and Tusitas are Nirmanarajas and Digantaraksitas. Between Tusitas and Avyabadhas are Atmaraksitas and Sarvaraksitas. Between Avyabadhas and Aristas are Maruts and Vasus. Between Aristas and Sarasvatas are Asvas and Visvas. All these are independent, as there is not inequality among them. They are celestial sages, as they are devoid of longing for sensual pleasure. They are worthy of veneration by other devas. They are well-versed in the scriptures of fourteen purvas. They are intent on strengthening the resolve of the Tirthamkaras at the time of their renunciation.

It has been said that Laukantikas come down from heaven, take a single birth and attain liberation. Is there any such rule relating to the liberation of other devas?

26. In Vijaya and the others the devas are of two final births.
Adi means of that sort. By this Vijaya, Vaijayanta, Jayanta, Aparajita and the nine Anudisa Vimanas are included. What is means by ‘of that sort’? They are supreme lords and are born with right belief. It is argued that Sarvarthasiddhi also is included here. No. They are of superior excellence. And from the etymological meaning of the word, they are of one birth, that is reincarnated only once. The final body is with reference to human birth. Those who take two human births are called dvicaramas. They come down from Vijaya etc. and they are born as men without any fall in their right faith. They practice restraint as saints and are born again in Vijaya etc. Again they come down, are born as men, and attain liberation. Hence they are described as of two births.

While describing the dispositions consequent on the rise of karmas, the disposition of the animal state of existence has been mentioned. Again, while describing the duration of life, the sutra, ‘Also of the animals’ has been added. What are animals?

27. The beings other than celestial, infernal and human beings are animals.
Aupapadikas are celestial and infernal beings. The human beings have been described, while mentioning that human beings live within Manusottara. The rest are the transmigrating souls other than these. They are born as animals. Just as in the case of celestial beings and the others, the regions of subhuman beings must also be described. But they are spread throughout the universe. Hence their regions are not mentioned.

The lifetime of infernal, human and subhuman beings has been described. That of devas has not been described, and hence it has to be described. First the lifetime of the first order of devas-namely the Residential devas-is mentioned.

28. The lifetime of Asura, Naga, Suparna and Dvipa kumaras and the rest of the Residential devas is one sagaropama, three palyas, two and a half palyas, two palyas, and one and a half palyas.
Asura and the others are taken respectively with sagaropama and the rest. This is the maximum duration. The minimum is mentioned later. It is as follows. The lifetime of Asuras is one sagaropama, that of Naga three palyas, that of Suparnas two and a half, that of Dvipas two, and that of the other six classes one and a half palyas.

The lifetime of Vyantaras and Jyotiskas (the Peripatetic and the Stellar devas) is to be described next in the regular order. But these are passed over and that of the Vaimanikas is described next. Why? Their (that of the Peripatetic and the Stellar devas) lifetime is mentioned briefly later on. Among the kalpas the lifetime of the devas in the first two kalpas is mentioned in the next sutra.

29. In Saudharma and Aisana Kalpas the maximum lifetime is a little over two sagaropamas.
Sagaropame is dual. Hence the meaning is two sagaropamas. ‘More’ is the governing rule. Up to what does it apply? Up to Sahasrara. How is this ascertained? From the particle ‘tu’ in the later sutra. It follows that of lifetime of Saudharma and Aisana devas is a little over two sagaropamas.

What is the lifetime of the next two?

30. In Sanatkumara and Mahendra seven.
The maximum lifetime of devas in these two kalpas is a little over seven sagaropamas.

The lifetime of devas from Brahmaloka to Acyuta Kalpa is indicated next.

31. But more by three, seven, nine, eleven, thirteen and fifteen.
Seven is the subject in hand. It is added to three etc. Three added to seven, seven added to seven, and so on. Similarly, these must be taken with two, two kalpas. ‘Tu’ is intended to indicate particularity. What particularity does it indicate? ‘A little over’ supplied from the previous sutra (29) is taken only with the first four and not the last two. It is as follows. The lifetime of devas in Brahma and Brahmottara is a little over ten sagaropamas, that of devas in Lantava and Kapistha a little over fourteen, that of devas in Sukra and Mahasukra a little over sixteen, that of devas in Satara and Sahasrara a litter over eighteen sagaropamas, that of devas in Anata and Pranata twenty sagaropamas, and that of devas in Arana and Acyuta twenty-two sagaropamas.

The lifetime of the rest is mentioned next.

32. Above Arana and Acyuta, in Navagraiveyakas, Vijaya, etc. and Sarvarthasiddhi, it is more and more by one sagara.
‘More’ is supplied. It must be taken thus, that is ‘more by one and one’. Why is nine mentioned? It is in order to indicate that in each Graiveyaka the lifetime is more by one sagara. Otherwise, the increase in the nine Graiveyakas would be only one. In Vijayadisu the word ‘adi’ denotes kinds. By this the anudisas are included. Sarvarthasiddhi is mentioned separately, as there is not minimum. This is the purport. In the lower Graiveyakas twenty-three in the first, twenty-four in the second, and twenty-five in the third. In the middle Graiveyakas twenty-six in the first, twenty-seven in the second and tent-eight in the third. In the upper Graiveyakas twenty-nine in the first, thirty in the second and thirty-one in the third. In Anudisavimanas thirty-two. In Vijaya and the others the maximum duration of life is thirty-three sagaropamas. In Sarvarthasiddhi thirty-three only (no minimum).

The minimum is mentioned next.

33. The minimum is a little over one palyopama.
Palyopama has been explained. Apara is the minimum duration of life. A little over palyopama. of whom? of Saudharma and Aisana devas. How is it implied? From the next sutra.

The minimum of the rest is mentioned next.

34. The maximum of the immediately preceding is the minimum of the next one (kalpa).
‘Parata’ means higher up. The repetition indicates succession. Similarly with regard to lower down. ‘More’ is supplied. By this it must be taken thus. It has been said that the maximum lifetime in Saudharma and Aisana is a little over two sagaropamas. That is the minimum lifetime in Sanatkumara and Mahendra. The maximum lifetime of devas in Sanatkumara and Mahendra is a little over seven sagaropamas. And that is he minimum in Brahma and Brahmottara. Similarly with regard to the rest.

The maximum lifetime of infernal beings has been described. The minimum has not been mentioned in the sutra. Nor is it the subject under consideration. Yet it is described here for the sake of brevity.

35. The same with regard to infernal beings from the second infernal region onwards.
What for is ‘ca’ used? It is for taking over the rule just mentioned. What is it? The maximum of the immediately preceding is the minimum of the next one. From this the following meaning is inferred. The maximum lifetime of infernal beings in the first earth Ratnaprabha is one sagaropama. That is the minimum in the second earth Sarkaraprabha. The maximum lifetime of infernal beings in the second earth is three sagaropamas. And that is the minimum in the third, namely Valukaprabha.

Thus the minimum lifetime from the second earth onwards has been mentioned. What is the minimum in the first?

36. Ten thousand years in the first.
‘The minimum lifetime’ is supplied. The minimum lifetime in the first earth is ten thousand years.

What is the minimum lifetime of the Residential devas?

37. In the Residential regions also.
What does ‘ca’ signify? It is intended to include the present subject. Therefore, it follows that the minimum lifetime of the Residential devas is also ten thousand years.

If so what is the minimum of the Peripatetic devas?

38. Of the Peripatetic also.
The word ‘ca’ is intended to include the present subject. Therefore, it is understood that the minimum of the Peripatetic devas is also ten thousand years.

What is the maximum lifetime of these?

39. The maximum lifetime of the Peripatetic devas is a little over one palyopama. New the maximum lifetime of the Stellar devas has to be mentioned.

40. Of the Stellar devas1 also.
‘Ca’ is intended to supply what has been mentioned above. So it is to be taken in this manner. The maximum lifetime of the Stellar devas is a little over one palyopama.

What is the minimum?

41. The minimum is one-eighth of it.
One-eighth of a palyopama is the minimum lifetime of the Stellar devas.

Now special mention has been made of Laukantikas. But their lifetime has not been particularized. How much is it?

42. Eight sagaropamas for all Laukantikas.
All these Laukantikas are of white thought-complexion. Their stature is five cubits.



Article Courtesy : Mr. Pravin K. Shah
Chairperson Jaina Education Committee
 Federation of Jain Associations in North America
509, Carriage Woods Circle Raleigh, NC 27607-3969, USA, E-Mail : pkshah1@attglobal.net


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